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Energy taxation. Meaning, objectives and criteria of application
The current project analyses energy taxation in the Spanish legal system. Therefore, it takes into account the regulation from the European Union and compares it with the regulation regarding those taxes that exist in the other countries around us. It also considers the extra-fiscal perspective, which is not different to environmental protection, one of the reasons behind energy taxation, as will become clear.
Amber Case: “Calm technology and the future of the energy sector”
On 22 February, the cyborg anthropologist, Amber Case, launched a new series of conferences by the Naturgy Foundation, talkson, which encourage reflection on how humans and technology interact in the energy sector. “We shouldn’t have one all-encompassing online solution for everyone in customer relations,” said Amber Case. According to Case, customers must be aware of which electrical appliances increase their bill the most and how they can reduce the cost of heating and refrigeration in their homes so that they can “adopt measures in their consumption habits”.
Biogas. News and perspectives of renewable gas
The biogas produced, with an estimated available primary energy potential in Spain equivalent to 2.3 million tonnes of petrol a year, is a renewable and flexible fuel capable of covering heat, electricity and vehicular fuel demands. Upgrading to biomethane and natural gas grid injection favours its use wherever and whenever transformation efficiency is highest, even as a resource for the chemical industry, integrating geographically distributed production and consumption. Despite its multiple advantages, its present economy depends largely on energy prices and governmental policies in areas such as regional development, waste management, renewable energy and climate change, which allow economic evaluation of the multiple environmental benefits and favour the development of this new industry.
The role of “g-mobility” in the current transport system
By 2030, according to the EU’s road map for decarbonisation, the EU should have reduced its carbon emissions by 40% compared to the 1990 levels. For the transition towards this objective, the EU must continue promoting low-carbon, cost-efficient technology, taking action in all the sectors responsible for emissions in Europe. Nevertheless, the transport sector has not experienced the same gradual decrease in emissions as other sectors, therefore delaying the bulk of specific advances in emission reduction processes until the next decade. Today, mobility still represents almost a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, and in urban areas it is responsible for increased atmospheric pollution.
This article introduces the concepts of eco-city and eco-design. They are tools applied to move current cities towards this new, more sustainable city model. The article also describes some experiences of eco-design in urban settings. These experiences are classified according to the territorial scope and the flow they are involved in. The territorial areas or systems selected are: public space in which both the underground and the above ground part, the building and the neighbourhood are affected.
Air quality in cities. A global challenge
This book examines the current problem of air quality in cities, a problem that is just as important as climate change and with more immediate adverse effects on people’s health. The first part describes the problem and the main sources of contamination that must be addressed. The second part presents the experiences of several cities around the world such as Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin, Mexico, Santiago de Chile, Bogotá and the Lombardy region in Italy. The book was created with the help of 18 internationally renowned experts.
From product to service. Circular Economy
Today’s goods are tomorrow’s resources at yesterday’s resource prices.
Evaluation of smart cities
The model analyses the city in terms of Mobility, Sustainability, implementation of e-Governance, Economic Development, Quality of Life and Intellectual Capital.
Energy and water
The book entitled “Energy and water” seeks to offer a detailed description of the main aspects of energy management where water plays a decisive role and, on the other hand, reveal the main facets of water system management where energy is an important factor. The book also presents numerous practical examples of this inter-relationship between energy management and water.